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Rabu, 04 November 2009

Global Warming and Climate Change

In general the climate as a result of the interaction of physical processes and physical chemical parameters, such as temperature, humidity, wind and rainfall patterns that occur in a place on earth. To determine the climate conditions of a place, according to international sizes required average value of the parameters for about 30 years. Climate arising from the energy distribution of the earth that is not fixed by the rotation / revolution of the earth around the sun for about 365 days and the rotation of the earth for 24 hours. This causes the received solar radiation changes depending on the location and geographical position of a region. Areas that are in a position approximately latitude 23.5 north - 23.5 south latitude, is the concentration of the tropics suryanya surplus energy from solar radiation received by each year (MenLH, 2003).

Natural sunlight into the earth, some will be reflected back by the earth's surface into space. Some of the reflected sunlight will be absorbed by the gases in the atmosphere that enveloped the earth-called greenhouse gases, so that the light is trapped in the earth. This event is known as the greenhouse effect because of events similar to greenhouses, where the incoming heat will be trapped in it, can not penetrate beyond the glass, so it can heat the entire greenhouse.

These natural events cause the earth to warm and decent human occupied, because if there is no Greenhouse Effect the Earth's surface temperature will be 33 degrees Celsius cooler. Greenhouse gases such as CO2 (carbon dioxide), CH4 (Methane) and N2O (Nitrous Oxide), HFCs (Hydrofluorocarbons), PFCs (Perfluorocarbons) and SF6 (sulfur hexafluoride) in the atmosphere resulting from human activities primarily related to the combustion fossil fuels (oil, gas, and coal) as in power generation, motor vehicles, air conditioners, computers, cooking. In addition Greenhaouse Gas is also produced from the burning and deforestation, and agricultural and livestock activities. Greenhouse gases are produced from these activities, such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitroksida, causing increased concentrations of Greenhouse Gases in the atmosphere.

The changing composition of Greenhouse Gases in the atmosphere, namely the increased concentration of Greenhouse Gases globally due to human activities causing the reflected sunlight by the Earth's surface back into space, most trapped inside the earth due to hampered by the Greenhouse Gas earlier. Increasing the amount of Greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere at the end of the increase in average temperature of the earth's surface, which was later known as Global Warming.

The sun's rays are not absorbed by the earth's surface will be reflected back from the earth's surface into space. After being reflected back into the form of long wave heat energy. But some of the heat energy can not penetrate or pass back out into space, because the layer of atmospheric gases have disturbed composition. As a result of heat energy that should escape into space (the stratosphere) be radiated back into the earth's surface (troposphere) or any additional heat energy back to Earth within a period long enough, so more than the normal condition, this is excessive greenhouse effect because the composition layer of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is interrupted, consequently triggering rising average temperature of the earth's surface there is global warming. Because temperature is one of the climatic parameters that affect the Earth's climate, there is global climate change.

Global warming and climate change causes an increase in temperature, melting of polar ice caps, rising sea levels, shifting the shoreline, prolonged drought, the period of the wet season short, but the higher the intensity, and anomaly-climate anomalies like El Nino - La Nina and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). These things will then cause the sinking of several islands and reduced land area, large-scale displacement, crop failure, food crisis, floods, epidemics, and other

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